TANYA'S

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO

FELINE CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

 

 

 

DENTAL PROBLEMS

 

ON THIS PAGE:


Introduction


Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions (FORL)


The Importance of Dental Health


Dental Health and CKD


Treatments


Brushing Teeth


Diet


Oral Gel Products


Coenzyme Q10


Antibiotics


Conscious Cleanings


Dental Surgery


Success Stories


 

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Home > Related Diseases > Dental Problems

 


Overview


  • Dental problems are very common in cats. Cats often develop a condition not seen in humans called FORL, which can be excruciatingly painful but which is often not visible.

  • It is important to treat dental problems because they may damage the kidneys and heart.

  • There are several treatments you can try, some of which can be easily and cheaply done at home.

  • if your cat does need to undergo dental surgery, there are precautions your vet can take to reduce the risks.


Introduction


 

A cat with a full set of teeth has thirty teeth, consisting of canines (the four long pointy teeth at the front, known as fangs in our house), incisors (those tiny little teeth at the front), pre-molars and molars. International Cat Care explains more about feline teeth.

 

Dental problems are not confined to the teeth. Most dental problems actually begin in the gums (periodontal disease). If these become inflamed or infected for any length of time, they may in turn lead to loose or damaged teeth. Aggie Animal Dental Center explains more about periodontal disease.

 

Unfortunately, cats are prone to dental problems, just as humans are, and they can start surprisingly early in life. The American Veterinary Dental College says "By three years of age, most dogs and cats have some evidence of periodontal disease."

 


Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions (FORL)


 

Although periodontal disease such as that seen in humans is commonly seen in cats, cats are also prone to a dental condition called feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions or FORL (also known as neck lesions or cat cavities). This condition was only seen in cats, though apparently some dogs are now trying to get in on the act. Animal Dentistry and Oral Surgery Specialists state that well over 50% of adult cats develop this problem.

 

FORLs used to be known as cat cavities because they sometimes look a bit like a cavity in human teeth. However, they are not the same thing. Cavities occur when bacteria attack the teeth from the outside and work their way into the tooth; whereas with FORLs the problem occurs within the tooth and gradually works its way out, often exposing roots.

 

FORLS are often divided into five classes:

 
FORL Class Effects Treatment
Class 1

Enamel affected but not dentin.

Not overly sensitive.

A cleaning by your vet following by daily tooth brushing at home may slow the progression of class 1 FORLs.

Class 2

Enamel and dentin affected.

More sensitive.

Some vets attempt restoration (fillings) for class 2 FORLs but success tends to be limited and temporary. Extraction is advised.

Class 3

Enamel, dentin and pulp affected.

Very painful.

Extraction is necessary

Class 4

Enamel, dentin, pulp and crown affected.

Extremely painful.

Extraction is necessary but may be difficult.

Class 5

The crown is completely resorbed.

Extremely painful.

Extraction is necessary but is much harder to do because the tooth tends to fragment as it is removed. Crown amputation (leaving the roots behind) may be necessary but is not ideal.

 

You will note that there is no mention of antibiotics under possible treatments. This is because antibiotics do not help with FORLs.

 

More advanced FORLS are so painful that, as shown in a video from Long Beach Animal Hospital, even cats under anaesthesia may react when an affected tooth is touched. Yet despite this, since FORLs start on the inside of the teeth, they can be very hard to detect because often there are no visible signs, especially in the early stages; and it doesn't help that our stoical cats instinctively try to hide the fact that they are in pain.

 

A trembling jaw: what resorptive tooth lesions mean for your cat (2013) Schaible L The Water Bowl says "If your vet suspects your cat may have a FORL, they may use a cotton-tipped applicator to press  against the suspected lesion. This causes pain when the FORL is touched and the cat's jaw actually spasms. The trembling is not subtle and is often alarming to the pet parent. While this is clearly not pleasant for the patient, this is the best way I know to demonstrate to the pet parent the pain their cat is in and likely has been experiencing for some time."

 

Even this is not foolproof: Dr Schaible goes on to say "In some cases, the FORL will be covered with inflamed gum tissue and is only detected while the patient is under anesthesia having a dental cleaning performed." Animal Dentistry and Oral Surgery Specialists has photos of this, where it looks as if the gum is growing over a part of the tooth near the gum.

 

The best way to diagnose FORLS is via X-ray, which can detect class 1 and 2 FORLs before pain is present. If your cat is to undergo a dental under anaesthesia, always ask for x-rays of the entire mouth. Personally, if I were putting a CKD at through a dental, I would ask for any teeth affected by FORLS to be removed.

 

Cats who have had a FORL are very likely to develop more in the future. How to detect and treat feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (2005) Carmichael DT Veterinary Medicine says "If a cat has an FORL in one tooth, it is safe to assume that the cat is at a high risk for other teeth to eventually become affected." You can help slow the progression of class 1 FORLs by brushing your cat's teeth daily. A trembling jaw: what resorptive tooth lesions mean for your cat (2013) Schaible L The Water Bowl recommends pressing a Q-tip against where a tooth meets the gum once a month, to check for a pain response or bleeding. If either is present, take your cat to the vet.

 

Pet Education explains more about FORL.

 

Pet Place has some information about FORL.

 

Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery of New Mexico has a helpful overview of FORLs.

 

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine discusses FORLS.

 

Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions (2003) Gorrel C Presentation to the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association explains more about FORLs.

 

Update on the etiology of tooth resorption in domestic cats (2005) Reiter AM, Lewis JR & Okuda A Veterinary Clinics Small Animal Practice 35 pp913-942 mentions that cats with FORL tend to have higher levels of vitamin D and lower urine specific gravity and mentions that further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between FORL, vitamin D and kidney insufficiency.

 


The Importance of Dental Health


 

Dental problems appear to be linked to an increased risk of other health issues. Although the precise mechanism is not known, scientists believe that in humans there may be a link between heart disease and the oral bacteria associated with poor dental hygiene. The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research reports on studies to date. There is also increasing evidence that dental disease is associated with CKD in humans.

 

There may also be a link with diabetes. The American Veterinary Dental College says "Studies in humans have linked periodontal disease to a variety of health problems including poor control of diabetes mellitus and increased severity of diabetic complications. Additionally, it has been shown that diabetes is a risk factor for periodontal disease."

 

Similar links are thought to exist in cats. The American Animal Hospital Association states that "Dental disease doesn’t affect just the mouth. It can lead to more serious health problems including heart, lung and kidney disease."

 

The American Veterinary Dental College says "periodontal disease is usually under-treated, and may cause multiple problems in the oral cavity and may be associated with damage to internal organs in some patients as they age."

 

Veterinary Dental Specialties & Oral Surgery says "The reason that a broken pet tooth with direct pulp exposure presents a problem is that after the tooth is fractured, bacteria from the mouth gain access to the root canal and infect the tooth. Eventually, the tooth will die and become a bacterial haven. The bacteria then leak out through the bottom of the tooth, and infect the bone in that area. Eventually, the bacteria cause bone destruction around the tips of the tooth root. Next, the blood vessels in the area pick up the bacteria and spread it to other areas of the body, including the liver & kidneys which filter the blood, and potentially to the heart valves, which damage these vital organs."

 

Vet Dentistry discusses feline oral problems.

 

International Cat Care discusses feline dental disease.

 

Dental Vet explains commonly seen feline dental problems.

 

The Animal Medical Center New York has several articles about dental problems in cats.

 


Dental Health and CKD


 

There is increasing evidence that dental disease is associated with CKD in humans, though further research is needed. Periodontal disease and risks of kidney function decline and mortality in older people: a community-based cohort study (2015) Chen YT, Shih CJ, Ou SM, Hung SC, Lin CH, Tarng DC American Journal of Kidney Disease 66(2) pp223-30 looked at a group of people aged over 65 in Taiwan. The study concludes "The results indicate that periodontal disease is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and eGFR decline ≥ 30% over 2 to 3 years in older people."

 

There also appears to be a link in cats between dental problems and CKD. Risk factors for development of chronic kidney disease in cats (2016) Finch NC, Syme HM & Elliott J Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 30(2) pp602-10 states "It is possible that oral inflammation may lead to kidneys damage through unknown mechanisms" and concludes "Our study suggests independent associations between both vaccination frequency and severity of dental disease and development of CKD" but states that further studies are necessary to investigate why this might be the case.

 

Some cats with periodontal disease who need dental treatment under anaesthesia may develop CKD shortly afterwards. Risk factors associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in cats evaluated at primary care veterinary hospitals (2014) Greene JP, Lefebvre SL, Wang M, Yang M, Lund EM & Polzin DJ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 244 pp320–327 found that "Risk factors for CKD in cats included ... prior periodontal disease or cystitis, anesthesia or documented dehydration in the preceding year."

 

It cannot be proven that the CKD has been triggered by the dental disease, and it is also possible that the anaesthetic played a role; but dental procedures do appear to carry some degree of risk, although the risks can be greatly minimised if precautions are taken (see below).

 

Certainly I feel that it is important to keep a close eye on your cat's dental health, as indicated by our own small survey of two CKD cats - Tanya was very healthy apart from the occasional dental abscess, and when we trapped Thomas, he had three badly abscessed teeth. I have heard from a number of people whose cats' kidney values improved when their dental problems were addressed.

 


Symptoms


 

Common symptoms of dental problems include:

  • teeth grinding

  • not eating

  • dropping food out of the mouth

  • tilting the head when eating

  • eating on one side of the mouth only

  • pawing at the mouth

  • lipsmacking

  • drooling

  • not chewing food

  • approaching food, then walking away

  • being a little subdued

Not every cat will exhibit symptoms according to the American Veterinary Dental College, which says "Unfortunately, other than bad breath, there are few signs of the disease process evident to the owner, and professional dental cleaning and periodontal therapy often comes too late to prevent extensive disease or to save teeth."

 

Some of the above symptoms may have other causes (for example, lipsmacking may be a sign of nausea). See Index of Symptoms and Treatments for more information.

 


Treatments


 

There are a number of possible treatments available, and your vet can decide which you need to use based on your cat's particular problems and the severity of those problems.

 

The treatments below are listed in order of invasiveness. The treatments you can do at home may help prevent or delay the need for more invasive treatments.

 

The 2013 American Animal Hospital Association Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats (2013) Holmstrom SE, Bellows J, Juriga S, Knutson K, Niemiec BA & Perrone J Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 49 pp75-82 have a good overview of dental care requirements in cats..

 

The American Veterinary Dental College provides an overview of dental treatments for cats.


Brushing Teeth


 

Just like humans, cats benefit from having their teeth cleaned regularly at home with a toothbrush. This may help slow the progression of both periodontal disease and FORLs.

 

You can buy special small toothbrushes for cats and special toothpastes in various flavours. My cats hated the vanilla flavour but seemed to quite like the poultry flavour.

 

Start off gradually, and let your cat get used to the toothbrush first, and then to the toothpaste, before you put them both together. Some people find their cats prefer a cloth to a toothbrush. And take your time, it doesn't matter if it takes several weeks to get your cat into a routine.

 

Henna cleans her cats' teeth is a video by a member of Tanya's CKD Support Group showing how she brushes her cats' teeth. Look at all those lovely white toothie peggies!

 

Brushing your cat's teeth Korich J & Davis E Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine is a video showing how to brush your cat's teeth, which includes a four week training programme.

 

American Veterinary Medical Association has a video on how to brush your cat's teeth.

 

Upper Canada Animal Hospital has a video showing you how to gradually get your cat used to tooth brushing.

 

Virbac makes oral hygiene kits for cats.

 

Medi-Vet sells a variety of dental health products for cats, including toothpastes and toothbrushes. Toothpastes and toothbrushes are widely available including from most vets.

 


Diet


 

It used to be thought that dry foods were better for dental health than canned foods, but this is now thought unlikely to be the case. The Cat Doctor says "most dry food diets do not keep the teeth clean, as many people have been led to believe."

 

However, there are some therapeutic foods available for dental health, e.g.Hill's t/d. Dr Milinda Lommer, a veterinary dentist, explains that these are designed so that the cat's teeth must penetrate the kibble, which removes plaque. The kibble size also helps. Some members of Tanya's CKD Support Group do find this type of food makes a difference to their cats' dental health.

 

The Veterinary Oral Health Council has a list of accepted products for cats.

 


Oral Products


 

There are a number of products available to assist with oral health which can either be rubbed on your cat's teeth or added to drinking water.

 

The Veterinary Oral Health Council has a list of accepted products for cats.

 

Oratene


There are several Oratene (previously Biotene) products which people on my support group have found helpful. Be careful that you choose the correct products though, because some in their range are not suitable.

  • Oratene Antiseptic Oral Gel contains antibacterial enzymes found naturally in saliva. Drugs has some information about it. It is usually used for about a week, and can be applied to your cat's gums with your finger or  Q-tip.

 

These products are available from Entirely Pets and many other suppliers.

 

Maxi/Guard


 

Addison Labs makes some products which some members of Tanya's CKD Support Group find helpful..


Co-enzyme Q10


 

Antioxidants mop up free radicals in the body, which are associated with aging and disease. Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), also known as ubiquinone or ubiquinol, is an antioxidant that is used by the body in energy production. Human research indicates that it may be helpful in the treatment of periodontal disease.

 

Effect of topical application of coenzyme Q10 on adult periodontitis (1994) Hanioka T, Tanaka M, Ojima M, Shizukuishi S & Folkers K Molecular aspects of medicine 15 Suppl pp241-8 found that the topical application of CoQ10 appeared to improve periodontitis in humans. Sugano, N, et al.

 

Omega 3 fatty acids and periodontitis in US adults (2010) Naqvi AZ, Buettner C, Phillips RS, Davis RB & Mukamal KJ Journal of the American Dietary Association 110(11) pp1669–1675 states "In summary, we found that n-3 intake, particularly DHA and EPA, are inversely associated with periodontitis in the US population. To date, the treatment of periodontitis has primarily involved mechanical cleaning and local antibiotic application. Thus, a dietary therapy, if effective, might be a less expensive and safer method for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. Given the evidence indicating a role for n-3s in other chronic inflammatory conditions, it is possible that treating periodontitis with n-3s could have the added benefit of preventing other chronic diseases associated with inflammation, including ischemic cerebrovascular disease, as well. Both of these questions warrant further investigation in prospective cohort and randomized clinical trials."

 

There were similar findings in more recent research by Nihon University School of Dentistry presented to The 63rd Meeting of the Vitamin Society of Japan, Hiroshima, Japan on 4th and 5th June 2011.

 

I am not aware of any more recent research, and I don't know anybody who has tried this in a cat, but I cannot think it would be sufficient to help you avoid dental surgery. if you want to try it, check with your vet first. More information on CoQ10 can be found here.

 


Antibiotics


 

Antibiotics may be prescribed:

  • to try to dampen down dental problems which are not too advanced

  • if your vet is reluctant to perform a dental under anaesthesia because of your cat's other health issues

These uses of antibiotics are not ideal in isolation and should not be done repeatedly because they may lead to antibiotic resistance.

 

Cats with oral infections often do need antibiotics. however, Policy statement: the use of antibiotics in veterinary dentistry (2005) American Veterinary Dental College states "Antibiotics should never be considered a monotherapy for treatment of oral infections, and should not be used as preventive management of oral conditions."

 

Antibiotics may also be prescribed if your cat undergoes a dental under anaesthesia, in which case antibiotics should be given for a couple of days in advance, and continued for 5-7 days afterwards. Some vets seem to be reluctant to prescribe antibiotics before dentals, however, Policy statement: the use of antibiotics in veterinary dentistry (2005) American Veterinary Dental College states "Patients that are scheduled for an oral procedure may benefit from pre-treatment with an appropriate antibiotic to improve the health of infected oral tissues. Bacteremia is a recognized sequela to dental scaling and other oral procedures. Healthy animals are able to overcome this bacteremia without the use of systemic antibiotics. However, use of a systemically administered antibiotic is recommended to reduce bacteremia for animals that are immune compromised, have underlying systemic disease (such as clinically-evident cardiac, hepatic, and renal diseases) and/or when severe oral infection is present."

 

Clindamycin (Antirobe) is the best choice of antibiotic in most cases, because this is particularly good at killing anaerobic bacteria which are often found in the mouth. When my PKD cat had a dental, this was the antibiotic which both the veterinary dentist and kidney specialist recommended for him.

 

There is more information about clindamycin here.

 


Cleanings While Conscious (Anaesthesia-Free Dentistry)


 

Some vets and groomers offer teeth cleanings performed while the cat is awake. Unfortunately it is not possible to perform a proper dental cleaning on a conscious cat. Therefore this sort of procedure is largely cosmetic (it may be of some use for cats who have had a dental performed recently, though tooth brushing might suffice).

 

Problems with this approach include:

  • this is a largely cosmetic procedure, because the problem area is under the gumline, which can only be reached if the cat is unconscious.

  • nevertheless, it can be traumatic and painful for the cat.

  • it is not possible to see any problems that need treating, such as FORLs.

  • it is not possible to do x-rays to look for such problems.

  • if you pay for these procedures regularly, you will probably end up spending as much as or more than you would have spent on proper cleanings.

Companion animal dental scaling without anesthesia (2004) American Veterinary Dental College says "Removal of dental tartar on the visible surfaces of the teeth has little effect on a pet’s health, and provides a false sense of accomplishment. The effect is purely cosmetic." It also explains the other risks of dental scaling performed without anaesthesia.

 

Dr Milinda Lommer, a veterinary dentist, explains why cosmetic cleaning of the teeth is no substitute for a thorough medical cleaning.

 

Aggie Animal Dental Center, owned by Dr Lommer, discusses this issue in more detail.

 


Dental Surgery


 

Eventually you may find that your cat needs dental surgery under anaesthesia. This enables your vet to clean under the gumline to help fight periodontal disease and/or to remove unhealthy teeth, perhaps because of FORLs or abscesses.

 

Many people are terrified of having their cat undergo a dental, but if your cat is suffering severe dental problems, you probably have little choice because it becomes a quality of life issue. Dental problems can be extremely painful! And since cats instinctively try to hide pain, your cat could be suffering chronic pain without you realising it. Americans are famous for their standards of dental care so probably don't know how bad toothache can be; but I'm English, so, as night follows day, I have bad teeth (though in my defence I would like to point out that they are naturally beautifully straight - no orthodontist necessary for me!). Therefore, yes, I have had toothache, and I can tell you it is absolutely horrible, and a dental abscess is unbelievably painful. If your cat has advanced FORLs, it is so painful that even cats under general anaesthesia may react when an affected tooth is touched.

 

What is a professional veterinary dental cleaning American Veterinary Dental College explains what a dental under anaesthetic entails.

 

Dr Greg McDonald has a video about what happens during anaesthesia and dentals in cats.

 

Long Beach Animal Hospital has detailed information on dental procedures.

 

Cat Hospital of Chicago explains more about dental disease and treatments.

 

If your cat does need a dental, there are ways to minimise the risks.

 

Preparing for Surgery


  • Use a veterinary dental specialist if possible.

  • You should always have a physical exam and bloodwork done and blood pressure checked before surgery, so any problems can be addressed. If your cat has heart issues, you may also wish to see a veterinary cardiologist prior to surgery.

  • If your cat is on blood pressure medication such as amlodipine (Norvasc) or benazepril (Fortekor), ask your vet if you need to stop the medication a couple of days before the surgery (since anaesthetics may reduce blood pressure).

  • Consider a chest x-ray to check the lungs are clear.

  • Antibiotics should be given to the cat, ideally starting a day or two before the procedure and continuing for 5-7 days afterwards.

  • CKD cats should be placed on IV fluids for a few hours before, during and after any dental procedures. All cats should be placed on IV fluids during and after any dental procedures. This is to avoid reduced blood flow and falls in blood pressure during the procedure, which may damage the kidneys.

During Surgery


  • I would always ask for X-rays to be performed so that the condition of the teeth can be examined properly and any teeth affected by FORLs can be identified and removed.

After Surgery


  • Some cats develop a low temperature following anaesthesia. Anaesthesia for the geriatric dog and cat (2008) Hughes JML Irish Veterinary Journal 61(6) pp380–387 states "the elderly patient is at increased risk of developing hypothermia. Shivering increases oxygen demand in the recovery period; if this demand is not met, arrhythmias often develop. Duration of anaesthesia should be kept to a minimum and all efforts taken to keep elderly patients warm". Therefore you should ensure that your cat is kept warm and his/her temperature monitored afterwards - some vets use heat pads, but these should only be used once the cat is able to move off the pad of their own volition should they start to feel too hot.

  • Anaesthesia for the geriatric dog and cat (2008) Hughes JML Irish Veterinary Journal 61(6) pp380–387 also states "All recovering geriatric patients should receive oxygen supplementation and be monitored closely until their protective pharyngeal reflexes have returned."

  • If inhaled anaesthesia has been used, your cat will have a tube down the throat during surgery (intubation), which can cause the throat to feel a little sore for a day or two afterwards.

  • Blood pressure should also be monitored for a week or so afterwards because surgery and anaesthesia may cause increases in blood pressure following the procedure.

  • Your cat may be able to come home a few hours after surgery, or may have to stay in the hospital overnight or for a day or so. If you bring him or her home soon after surgery, keep him/her in a warm, quiet place. Your cat may be a little wobbly at first, but this should soon improve. If you have any concerns, contact your vet.

  • If a lot of work is done, painkillers may be necessary. My Indie (non-CKD) had extensive extractions, and was given a Fentanyl patch on her back leg to help her oral pain. Buprenorphine is also used for many cats following dentals with few problems.

Most cats do cope with dental surgery; but it is still surgery, and problems may occur in some cases. Some cats will start eating immediately following a dental, but may then worsen a day or two later as the painkillers wear off. Many cats take a while to regain their appetite. Our Indie, non-CKD, was given a dental at the age of nine because she simply stopped eating because of dental pain. Although she recovered relatively quickly from the surgery, she still went through an extended period of not eating afterwards, which had me at my wit's end.

 

If your cat does not resume eating and also seems to be gaining weight following a dental, check with your vet because occasionally more serious problems can arise, as happened to Harpsie, even though we followed all the above guidelines.

 


Success Stories


 

Immediately above I describe some of the problems I have encountered during dentals in my cats. However, I would say there are many, many more success stories than problems.

 

You have to understand that dental problems can cause a lot of pain, but your cat may well not show it. Veterinary Dental Specialties & Oral Surgery, talking about broken teeth, say ""Pet teeth with direct root canal exposure are excruciatingly painful to a dog or cat. Unfortunately, only very rarely will animals show discomfort, as they are evolutionarily conditioned to mask pain fairly well, preferring to suffer in silence. This allows owners (and veterinarians) to ignore the problem, as “it doesn’t seem to bother the pet”. But we now know that these animals are suffering with consequences both locally in the mouth as well as systemically throughout the body. This means that in today’s current age of veterinary medicine, it is no longer appropriate or acceptable to ignore broken teeth in our patients."

 

Dental pain sucks, big time. What is the point of your cat living a longer life if that life is filled with pain?

 

Many members of Tanya's CKD Support Group have had dentals performed on their cats with great reluctance, only to find their cats not only come through very well, they actually look and act much better than before the dental. Veterinary Dental Specialties & Oral Surgery says "We have had numerous clients who have told us that their pet is not bothered by its broken tooth when it is discovered, that later tell us joyfully that their pet is acting “5 years younger” just two weeks after the problem is fixed."

 

As a bonus, many cats' kidney bloodwork improves following a dental. Veterinary Dental Specialties & Oral Surgery says "infected teeth (and periodontal disease) can so greatly affect the rest of the body and its vital organs that we have had numerous patients with elevated liver and kidney enzymes found on the pre-op blood which then improve or return to normal levels within two weeks of the dental procedure."

 

One 13 year old cat on Tanya's Support Group had BUN of 107 mg/dl and creatinine of 10.1  mg/dl back in November 2011. His caregiver was told he had severe dental problems and was offered either a dental or euthanasia, so she opted for the dental. Following the dental, her cat's creatinine fell to 1.9 mg/dl and he has remained stable to date, with his numbers only recently (2017) worsening.

 

Another cat had creatinine of 3.4 mg/dl before her dental. After the dental her creatinine fell to 1.9 mg/dl and she is still alive, five years later.

 

 

 

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This page last updated: 11 June 2017

Links on this page last checked: 11 June 2017

   

*****

 

TREATING YOUR CAT WITHOUT VETERINARY ADVICE CAN BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS.

 

I have tried very hard to ensure that the information provided in this website is accurate, but I am NOT a vet, just an ordinary person who has lived through CKD with three cats. This website is for educational purposes only, and is not intended to be used to diagnose or treat any cat. Before trying any of the treatments described herein, you MUST consult a qualified veterinarian and obtain professional advice on the correct regimen for your cat and his or her particular requirements; and you should only use any treatments described here with the full knowledge and approval of your vet. No responsibility can be accepted.

 

If your cat appears to be in pain or distress, do not waste time on the internet, contact your vet immediately.

 

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Copyright © Tanya's Feline CKD Website 2000-2017. All rights reserved.

 

This site was created using Microsoft software, and therefore it is best viewed in Internet Explorer. I know it doesn't always display too well in other browsers, but I'm not an IT expert so I'm afraid I don't know how to change that. I would love it to display perfectly everywhere, but my focus is on making the information available. When I get time, I'll try to improve how it displays in other browsers.

 

You may print out one copy of each section of this site for your own information and/or one copy to give to your vet, but this site may not otherwise be reproduced or reprinted, on the internet or elsewhere, without the permission of the site owner, who can be contacted via the Contact Me page.

 

This site is a labour of love, from which I do not make a penny. Please do not steal from me by taking credit for my work.

If you wish to link to this site, please feel free to do so. Please make it clear that this is a link and not your own work. I would appreciate being informed of your link.