TANYA'S

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO

FELINE CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

 
   

SYMPTOMS: REGULATION OF MINERALS (PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM)

 

ON THIS PAGE:


Symptoms of Phosphorus Imbalances


Symptoms of Calcium Imbalances


 

 

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KEY ISSUES


Nausea, Vomiting, Appetite Loss and Excess Stomach Acid


Maintaining Hydration


The Importance of Phosphorus Control


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SYMPTOMS


Alphabetical List of Symptoms and Treatments


Fluid and Urinary  Imbalances (Dehydration, Overhydration and Urinary Issues)


Waste Product Regulation Imbalances (Vomiting, Appetite Loss, Excess Stomach Acid, Gastro-intestinal Problems, Mouth Ulcers Etc.)


Phosphorus and Calcium Imbalances


Miscellaneous Symptoms (Pain, Hiding Etc.)


 

DIAGNOSIS: WHAT DO ALL THE TEST RESULTS MEAN?


Blood Chemistry: Kidney Function, Potassium, Other Tests (ALT, Amylase, (Cholesterol, Etc.)


Calcium, Phosphorus, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Complete Blood Count (CBC): Red and White Blood Cells: Anaemia and Infection


Urinalysis (Urine Tests)


Other Tests: Ultrasound, Biopsy, X-rays etc.


Renomegaly (Enlarged Kidneys)


Which Tests to Have and Frequency of Testing


Factors that Affect Test Results


Normal Ranges


International and US Measuring Systems


 

TREATMENTS


Which Treatments are Essential


Fluid and Urinary Issues (Fluid Retention, Infections, Incontinence, Proteinuria)


Waste Product Regulation (Mouth Ulcers, GI Bleeding, Antioxidants, Adsorbents, Azodyl, Astro's CRF Oil)


Phosphorus, Calcium and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Calcitriol)


Miscellaneous Treatments: Stem Cell Transplants, ACE Inhibitors - Fortekor, Steroids, Kidney Transplants)


Antibiotics and Painkillers


Holistic Treatments (Including Slippery Elm Bark)


ESAs (Aranesp, Epogen etc.) for Severe Anaemia


General Health Issues in a CKD Cat: Fleas, Arthritis, Dementia, Vaccinations


Tips on Medicating Your Cat


Obtaining Supplies Cheaply in the UK, USA and Canada


Working with Your Vet and Recordkeeping


 

DIET & NUTRITION


Nutritional Requirements of CKD Cats


The B Vitamins (Including Methylcobalamin)


What to Feed (and What to Avoid)


Persuading Your Cat to Eat


Food Data Tables


USA Canned Food Data


USA Dry Food Data


USA Cat Food Manufacturers


UK Canned Food Data


UK Dry Food Data


UK Cat Food Manufacturers


2007 Food Recall USA


 

FLUID THERAPY


Intravenous Fluids


Subcutaneous Fluids


Tips on Giving Subcutaneous Fluids


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Giving Set


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Syringe


Subcutaneous Fluids - Winning Your Vet's Support


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My Three CKD Cats: Tanya, Thomas and Ollie


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Home > Symptoms > Regulation of Minerals

 


Overview


  • Phosphorus and calcium are minerals essential to bodily function.

  • Imbalances may arise in CKD cats and lead to a condition known as secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may make the CKD progress faster.


Symptoms of Phosphorus Imbalances                                                           Back to Page Index


 

Since phosphorus control is so important for CKD cats, there is an entire page devoted to the topic, which includes symptoms of imbalances. Briefly, they include:


Symptoms of Calcium Imbalances                                                                   Back to Page Index


 

Seizures


Seizures may be a sign of calcium imbalances. Seizures may take a number of different forms. There may be the classic jerking and loss of consciousness, but being "spaced out" or mentally absent or staring into space may also be a type of seizure. Harpsie' s website has more information on what seizures may look like.

 

Seizures in CKD cats may also be caused by high potassium levels, high blood pressure, high levels of toxins, or metabolic acidosis. The use of Reglan (metoclopramide) for stomach problems or Advantage for fleas may lower the seizure threshold. Other possible causes of seizures include epilepsy or a brain tumour.  but the causes mentioned above are far more likely in a CKD cat and should therefore be considered first.

 

Weakness


Weakness may be seen. Another possibe cause is high phosphorus levels leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism. If your cat seems to be clumsy or stumbling, please also read All About Phosphorus.

 

Weakness in the back legs is often caused by low potassium levels or occasionally by low magnesium levels; while muscle wasting may be caused by metabolic acidosis. General weakness may be caused by anaemia. If your cat no longer jumps, this may be thought to be weakness when in fact it is an unwillingness to jump because of blindness caused by hypertension. An inability to jump or climb may also be caused by arthritis.

 

Constipation


This may be caused by high calcium levels. It may also be caused by dehydration or low potassium levels.

 

Twitching, Trembling or Shaking


Twitching may be caused by calcium imbalances (especially head twitching). Other causes of twitching include high phosphorus levels, high or low potassium levels, high blood pressure, hyperthyroidism or Vitamin B deficiency. Twitching may also be caused by toxin levels. If your cat only twitches while you are giving fluids, it is probably caused by either the type of fluid used or by giving cold (room temperature) fluids.

 

Pharaoh's Shakes is a video showing a CKD cat twitching.

Pet MD mentions that twitching may be caused by kidney disease.

 

Eating Litter/Licking Concrete


This is normally associated with anaemia, but is occasionally seen when there are calcium imbalances.

 

Low Temperature


This may be seen when there are calcium imbalances. Other possible causes include anaemia and heart problems. A CKD cat's temperature may also fall during The Final Hours.

 


Treatment Options                                                                                                   Back to Page Index


 

It is possible to treat all of the above symptoms, in many cases effectively, and details can be found in the Treatments section.

 

 

 

 

 

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This page last updated: 18 September 2013

Links on this page last checked: 28 March 2012